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Pneumology deals with disorders and diseases involving the bronchopulmonary district (bronchi and lungs) of the respiratory system. Respiratory conditions are diverse: asthma and severe asthma, COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), emphysema, bronchiectasis, interstitial lung diseases, sleep-disordered breathing, pulmonary fibrosis, and neoplasms.

Pneumology essentially involves two main types of services: the pneumological examination and the performance of a series of instrumental investigations.

Pneumologic execution and more depth tests

The pneumological examination involves the anamnestic and clinical evaluation by the pulmonologist, a physician specialized in respiratory diseases. The objective of the examination is to assess any pathologies, prescribe further instrumental investigations, and indicate any necessary therapies. The examination begins with an initial interview, during which the doctor collects all the information about the patient’s medical history and any ongoing or previous therapies. Subsequently, a physical examination is conducted to identify symptoms of potential respiratory system pathologies.

In a third phase, if necessary, instrumental analyses are performed, ranging from simple to more sophisticated ones (biochemical, functional, and radiological). Among these instrumental investigations, spirometry with or without methacholine challenge, arterial blood gas analysis (ABG), the alveolar-capillary diffusion test, and the six-minute walk test (6MWT) can be mentioned. Additionally, the pulmonologist may suggest relevant radiological examinations, especially in cases of suspected neoplastic pathology.

Other types of tests: pneumological check-up, simple spirometry, global spirometry, methacholine test, global spirometry with DLCO, walking test, systemic arterial blood gas analysis, pharmacological bronchodilation test.

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