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Diabetes: treatments, personalized therapy, and recommended diet

Diabetes, whose full name is diabetes mellitus, is one of the most well-known and recognized chronic metabolic diseases worldwide. It is caused by insulin dysfunction and characterized by elevated levels of glucose in the blood.

Treatments for diabetes vary and depend on the specific needs of each individual: from oral medications to insulin, including intensive insulin therapy and new technologies. It is essential to work closely with a medical team to develop a personalized treatment plan that considers the individual’s characteristics and patient preferences.

Diabetes is divided into two main forms:

  1. Type 1 diabetes: characterized by the complete absence of insulin secretion by the pancreas.
  2. Type 2 diabetes: due to very low sensitivity of the body to insulin (insulin resistance) or reduced pancreatic secretion.

What are the possible treatments for diabetes?

  • Oral hypoglycemic agents: These are one of the main therapeutic options for Type 2 diabetes. These drugs work in various ways to help control blood sugar levels, increasing insulin efficiency, reducing glucose production in the liver, and improving glucose absorption in cells. In addition to the classic metformin and sulfonylureas, innovative classes of drugs such as dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists have emerged in recent years. The latter are administered subcutaneously.
  • Insulin: For people with Type 1 diabetes or advanced Type 2 diabetes, insulin is often necessary to control blood sugar levels. Available in different types and action profiles, it can be administered through multiple daily subcutaneous injections or an insulin pump. Typically, the therapy includes long-acting insulins to keep glucose levels stable throughout the day and night. These insulins can be combined with rapid-acting ones if there are high blood sugar levels, especially during main meals.

Whatever the established therapy, Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) is absolutely necessary!

There are indeed devices that constantly measure blood glucose levels and provide real-time information on glucose status, useful for identifying glucose trends, preventing hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia, and optimizing long-term glucose control.

What daily diet should be followed in case of diabetes?

The diet for those with diabetes is crucial to keep blood sugar under control and prevent complications related to the disease. In general, it is important for a diabetic patient to follow some guidelines such as: controlling portions, monitoring the amount of food consumed to avoid glucose spikes, and eating balanced meals throughout the day.

Furthermore, regarding nutrition, it is necessary to limit the intake of added sugars, such as sweets, sugary drinks, and processed foods. Blood sugar control also involves consuming foods rich in fiber, such as fruits, vegetables, legumes, and whole grains, and choosing complex carbohydrates over simple ones found in foods like whole grains, vegetables, legumes, and fresh fruits.

Finally, but not least, it is important to: consume lean proteins, such as lean meats, fish, eggs, low-fat dairy products, and tofu; limit the intake of saturated fats, preferring healthy fats found in nuts, seeds, and fatty fish.

MiniHospital “Sandro Pertini”: Personalized care for those with diabetes

To minimize and delay the complications of diabetes, it is important to consult a diabetes specialist to get the most appropriate therapy and a personalized diet that considers individual needs.

The MiniHospital “Sandro Pertini” provides a personalized approach to the care of patients with diabetes, creating specific solutions to ensure their optimal well-being. Before starting any treatment, our medical team conducts a detailed assessment to fully understand the patient’s condition, concerns, and health goals. Contact us for more information.

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