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Clinical and instrumental cardiology


Cardiology is the specialty that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as arterial hypertension, heart failure, rhythm disturbances, cardiomyopathies, and valvular defects.

Cardiology consultation and depth test

The main objective of the cardiology consultation is to assess the patient’s condition and to exclude or diagnose the presence of a cardiovascular disease. After a discussion in which the specialist gathers the patient’s medical history and relevant information about diet, lifestyle, and tobacco use, a thorough physical examination is conducted, followed by instrumental assessment with an electrocardiogram to detect any rhythm abnormalities (arrhythmias, fibrillations, extrasystoles) and coronary artery diseases.

If the cardiologist deems it necessary, they will suggest or proceed directly with second-level tests such as echocardiogram, stress ECG, ambulatory ECG monitoring (Holter monitoring), ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), cardiac and vascular color Doppler ultrasound. In case of concrete and severe diagnostic doubts, the cardiologist will refer the patient to third-level tests, such as CT angiography, cardiac MRI, coronary angiography, to be performed in highly specialized centers.

Referral specialists

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