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It’s a surgical discipline that deals with diagnosing pathologies involving the urinary tract (male and female) and male reproductive organs. In addition to the surgical approach, the urology specialist relies on internal medicine, pediatrics, and gynecology knowledge for accurate diagnosis, often consulting specialists from other disciplines such as nephrology, infectious diseases, and endocrinology.

The most common conditions that a urologist deals with include:

  • Calculi (stones)
  • Interstitial cystitis
  • Urethral diverticula
  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Stress urinary incontinence
  • Male infertility
  • Urinary tract infections
  • Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)
  • Hypertension
  • Adrenal gland disorders
  • Congenital malformations of the genitourinary tract
  • Advanced kidney diseases
  • Genitourinary tract trauma
  • Tumors of the genitourinary tract
  • Obstructive uropathies

The urological examination and in-depth tests

Urological diagnostics includes the analysis of the patient’s entire medical history and physical examination, but in most cases, it also relies on specific diagnostic tests, such as:

  • Ultrasound
  • Lower abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • Abdominal CT scan
  • Endoscopic examinations
  • Laboratory tests (urinalysis, PSA test, semen culture, and semen analysis)
  • Urodynamic tests Biopsy examinations (prostate biopsy, bladder biopsy, or kidney biopsy)

Reference specialists

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